Overview of the Components in Interaction

Having delved into the nature of each component and having explored the range of forms they each manifest, we can now bring them together for an overall look. Figure 10.1 does this graphically, focusing on one major feedback system of the six components—the individual employee's willingness to participate. Other foci could have been selected—such as the interactions of the six components on employees' wage desires, or on managers' expectations about workers' abilities—but for purposes of illustration just one focus was used. This particular focus was chosen because willingness to participate is acknowledged by several other authors to be crucial to the overall success or failure of democratization (Mulder, 1971; Rus, 1973; Fine, 1973).

Our model enables us to identify several causes of change in this crucial factor. Beginning in the upper right-hand quadrant of the model, the basic components are arranged clockwise (each within a double-lined, circular space). Each component is regarded as satisfying a specific condition crucial to the motivation of employees to continue participating. In the diagram, these conditions are posed as questions: "Is one or another means available?" Each such question is presented in a rectangular space directly preceding the component. For example, in the upper right-hand rectangle: "I. Does there exist means for getting one's views frequently into decision-making bodies?" If the component is present and functioning, then the question is answered in the affirmative (YES: direct participation or elected representation) and the condition is being satisfied within that particular company's system of work democratization.

The consequences of each component's activity are then diagrammed feeding forward by raising the need for other conditions (e.g.. Rectangle II: "Are there any tangible rewards to the participant for his/her extra effort . . .?" in the lower right-hand corner of the model). Or the consequences are seen to feed backward, reinforcing the employee's willingness to participate again (long arrows around border of model culminating at the circle of High willingness to participate in component 6).

If the component is not present or is not functioning, then the condition posed is not being satisfied in a particular case. The consequences of its absence are followed along feedbacks through the NO boxes to various depressing effects on the employee's willingness to participate further. Those effects (portrayed in the large, double-lined central box of the model, within component 6) can range from mere caution and frustration, to fear, accumulated resentment, and cynicism. After a while, these conditions lead to long-term apathy and a probable withdrawal from participation, which